To enable efficient regenerative braking, the use of a brake-by-wire braking system is necessary. The system separates the hydraulic connection of the driver's master brake cylinder from the brake calipers of the electrically propelled axle. As a result, depending on the negative torque currently available from the traction motor, a hydraulic pressure can be applied by the brake-by-wire system that precisely matches the driver's deceleration request. The result is a maximum of recovered kinetic energy into the battery without the driver noticing by which system the vehicle deceleration is generated.
The hydraulic separation of the driver's pedal from the brake calipers means that the pedal travel is very short, as the volume from the master brake cylinder can no longer be shifted to the brake calipers. This makes it more difficult for the driver to meter the braking force and thus extends the braking distance. To counteract this, LSP has developed a pedal feel emulator. In the active mode of the brake-by-wire braking system, the pedal feel emulator absorbs the displaced volume with a specific stiffness. By precisely tuning the characteristic curve, the driver does not notice any difference whether the volume is absorbed by the brake calipers or the emulator. The result is a consistent and familiar pedal feel that allows the driver to safely operate the vehicle at the limit, allowing the driver to get the maximum performance from the vehicle.