The Doppelhubkolben 19c separates the two working spaces 19a and 19b from each other, wherein the piston surface 19e, which limits the working space 19b, is greater than the effective piston area 19d, which limits the working space 19a is. The working space 19a is connected via the hydraulic main line HL2. The working space 19b is connected to the hydraulic main line HL1. From the hydraulic main lines HL1, HL28, the hydraulic supply lines HL25, HL28, HL30a, HL30b, HL33a, HL33b, HL35a, HL35b, HL38a and HL38 are derived, which contain the hydraulic main lines HL1, HL2 with the couplings 25 / C1, 28 / C2 and the gear actuators 30, 33, 35 and 38. In the hydraulic supply lines HL25, HL28, HL30a, HL30b,
HL33a, HL33b, HL35a, HL35b, HL38a and HL38 are each arranged switchable valves 24, 27, 32, 33, 37, 40 and 41 for selectively shutting off or opening the supply lines. The two working spaces 19a and 19b are each connected via hydraulic lines HL19a and HL19b to a reservoir 6, whereby switchable 2/2 way valves 20, 22 are arranged in the hydraulic lines HL19a and HL19b. Parallel to each 2/2-way valve 20, 22 a check valve 21, 23 is arranged in each case.
The manual transmission according to Figure la with two clutch plates and four gear actuators requires only eight switchable 2/2-way valves. The gear plates 30, each have two working spaces 30a, 30b, 33a, 33b, 35a, 35b and 38a, 38b which are sealed and separated from each other by pistons. It is important in this arrangement that the first working spaces 30a, 33a, 35a, and 38a are connected to the first hydraulic main line HL1 and thus to the working space 19b, and that the second working spaces 30b, 33b, 35b, and 38b are connected via the second hydraulic main line HL2 are connected to the working space 19 a of the piston-cylinder unit 19. As a result of this separate arrangement of the connecting lines HL1 and HL2, a gear change can be implemented as follows: For a gear change from the first to the second gear, the second gear must first be engaged, with the clutch Cl (25) being pressed in this initial state and thus also closed , However, so that the volume or the pressure from the clutch Cl does not escape, the clutch actuator valve 24 must be closed. To initiate the gear change the gear actuator valve 1 (35) is opened, the exhaust valve 1 and the clutch actuator valve 2 is closed. Subsequently, the Doppelhubkolben 19 c can be moved to the left with the engine and gear unit 1 and 2, whereby volume in the gear tray 2/4 (33) is moved specifically into the chamber 33 b. If the valve 35 is not opened in this process to allow the shift actuator 33 to move, the system would be hydraulically locked. If gear 2 in gear selector 2/4 (33) in the sub-transmission is synchronized with, for example, the crankshaft, the gear can finally be engaged. Gear control valve 35 is closed again, clutch actuator valve 27 is opened and exhaust valve 20 remains closed and the clutch actuation in clutch C2 (28) can be started. In order to switch frictional interruption free, a continuous load change of the two clutches Cl (25) and C2 (28) must take place. The closing of the clutch C2 is undertaken by means of the pressure build-up in the double-stroke piston 19, which in turn moves to the left. The simultaneous opening of the clutch Cl (25) is possible with a stufweiser or stepless control of the clutch actuator valve 24 that discharges the fluid controlled via the corresponding outlet valve 22. If the load change is completed, the gear 1/3 (30) can either be set to neutral (mid-position of the shift fork 30c) or the next gear can be preselected. The clutch actuator valves 24, 27, the exhaust valve 22 are closed and the gear actuator valve 32 is opened. The Doppelhubkolben 19 displaces the volume from chamber 19b and thus shifts the gear plate 30 to the right, according to the displaced volume. The gear position from 1 to 2 is finally completed.
Preferably, the piston 19c is located before starting the journey in a middle position, since it can not be predicted whether at the start of the vehicle first gear or reverse gear is engaged. Thus, for both maneuvers corresponding volume for actuating a gear actuator and a clutch is present. Alternatively, the piston would have to be moved with the valves 20 and 22 open in the correct position. During the load change from a partial transmission to the other partial transmission, when a clutch 25 is pressed by means of the motor-transmission piston unit 1, 2 and 27 fluid is discharged from the other clutch 28 via the corresponding clutch actuator valve, the control of the clutches either via possible position sensors 26, 29 or pressure sensors. Depending on the embodiment of the transmission, a pressure or position sensor is used in current transmissions. Dry couplings are usually carried out with position sensors and wet couplings with pressure sensors. The controlled discharge of the couplings can be done either with the valves 24 and 27 or with the valves 20 and 22 either gradually or steplessly, depending on which valve types are used. In the illustrated embodiment, one uses simple switching valves (stepwise) or a valve with flying analog controlled armature (stepless).
For safety reasons, in each embodiment of the dual-clutch actuator with eight valves, a position sensor 31, 34, 36, 39 is provided in each gear plate 30, 33, 35, 38, so that possible leaks in the valves 32, 37, 40, 41 are not can lead to mechanical destruction. The valves 20, 22, 24 and 27 must be carried out in normally open position, so that in case of system failure both clutches 25, 28 are opened immediately, without further needing a supply. Figure lb shows an embodiment in which pressure can be locked in the gear actuators 30, 33, 35, 38 by means of switching valves 32 and 52, 41 and 53, 37 and 54, 40 and 55. In the case of a dual-clutch transmission, the clutch Cl or C2 can be actuated, which is also operated with so-called micro-slip and is controlled by the Doppelhubkolben 19. Micro-slip is used to dampen unwanted speed fluctuations on the crankshaft to a certain extent and to better estimate the opening position of the clutches. The effect of damping depends on the size of the operated slip on the corresponding coupling. If a gear change is to be completed, it often takes several hundred milliseconds, since the synchronization of the unloaded subtransmission takes up a large part of the total shift time. By means of a Doppelhubkol- bens 19 which is operated with a trapezoidal spindle or a ball screw 2, a gear change can be initiated briefly. In this case, the last under load clutch 25 or 28 is locked in the corresponding partial transmission with the clutch actuator valve 24 or 27 and it can now be fluid with the valves 24 or 22 and also 27 or 21 are drained. A micro-slip control is not or only partially possible in this short time, but the clutch still continues to slip. Thereafter, the desired gear actuator is actuated and moved only to the synchronization point, whereby the pressure in the gear regulator can be calculated from the motor current. If the synchronization is initiated, the hydraulic pressure can be locked with switching valves in the corresponding gear selector and the Doppelhubkolben 19 can after a short time interruption, the micro-slip control on the loaded clutch 25 or 28 resume. For this, however, the pressure level in Doppelhubkoben 19 must approach the loaded clutch and then open the clutch actuator valve 27 or 24 again pressure-differential. If the synchronization is completed in the unloaded partial transmission, the final gear change can be initiated and the load change is completed.
FIG. 1c shows a variant for controlling the two clutches 25 / C1 and 28 / C2. It is an intelligent modification of the engine 1 for driving the hydraulic piston 19, which is driven by a spindle 2, to reduce and thus to save power, weight and space. If, for example, a gear change from the partial transmission 1 with the clutch Cl / 25 to the partial transmission 2 with the clutch C2 / 28 is carried out, the stored potential energy of the clutch Cl / 25 can be used for the pressure buildup in clutch C2 / 28. A schematic representation of the sequence is shown in the figures ld and le. FIG. 1 d shows possible pressure curves in the clutches in this modification and FIG le a simplified representation of the reduced power consumption of the electric motor. 1
In Figure lc is shown by means of arrows, as the fluid flows during load changes. Thus, the fluid stored and pressurized in the clutch Cl / 25 is conducted via the lines HL25 and HL1 into the working space 19b and exerts a force on the piston 19c to the left. This force assists the engine 1 when adjusting the piston 19c to the left to reduce the working space 19a to build a pressure in the clutch C2 / 28. The surface hatched in FIG. 1 d corresponds to the energy which can be saved by the assisting force of the fluid under pressure in the clutch Cl / 25 when shifting the clutch C 2/28. If the clutch C2 / 28 is opened and the clutch Cl / 25 is to be closed, the pressure stored in the clutch C2 / 28 can be used analogously to assist the adjustment of the piston 19c. This reduces the maximum required power of the motor from P max _Th to P max , as shown in FIG. The motor 1 can thus be dimensioned smaller.
Due to hysteresis and friction losses in the closed hydraulic transmission actuator, this procedure can be too much volume for a suitable load change in the system. At the same time, the outlet valves 20 and 22 can provide suitable volume balances and discharge possible liquid excess via the lines HL19a, HL19b into the reservoir 6. Depending on the design of the engine-transmission-piston unit 1, 2, 19 is required in this embodiment, the load change between the clutches, the maximum power of the engine 1. This means that the engine 1 with comprehensive intelligent control (engine 1 and valves 20, 22, 24, 27) can generally be made smaller. Especially in the initial phase, until the pressures of the two clutches 25 and 28 are the same, it is possible to dispense with the motor in general, except for efficiency reductions (ball screw or trapezoidal spindle, hydraulic losses, etc.). Only when the clutch pressure in clutch C2 / 28 is higher than in clutch Cl / 25, the engine must fully build up the pressure in clutch C2, with the assistance of the remaining pressure in clutch Cl / 25. FIG. 2a describes the design of a dual-clutch transmission with wet-running clutches C1 and C2 and a separate cooling circuit HLP with independent pump 44 with drive motor 43. The functioning and execution of a gear change functions identically as described in FIG. 1a, whereas clutches C1 and C2 become C2 via the pressure sensors 41, 42 and not via position sensors 26, 29 regulated. The position sensors can therefore be omitted. Due to higher transmitted torque and the possible use of multi-plate clutches, the pump 44 is supplied with a separate cooling circuit HLP cooled with its own medium from the container 46.
FIG. 2 b describes a system architecture of a double-stroke piston with wet-running clutches and separate cooling circuits HLK 1 and HLK 2 with simultaneously running double-stroke piston pump 50 which is connected to the piston passage of the engine / transmission piston unit 1, 2, 19. With the function of the actual transmission actuator, a pumping function can be taken over by means of a separate double-stroke piston 50. So an additional pump with motor can be saved. The cooling circuits HLKL, HLK2 run with separate medium whereby contamination can not get into the actual Doppelhubaktuator 19. In this embodiment, the additional Doppelhubkolben 50d must be much larger than the actual actuator with Doppelhubkolben 19c, since some liters of fluid must be promoted for cooling per minute. Since under certain circumstances the actuator does not have to perform a gear or coupling position, cooling liquid can continue to be conveyed out of the container 47 and via the check valves 48 and 49 by opening valves 20 and 22. The piston 50d can be moved back and forth by means of the drive 1 as a function of the required delivery rate - high frequency with strong cooling, low frequency with low cooling - without the clutches C1 and C2 and the gear adjuster being adjusted. This is achieved by closing the associated valves 24, 27, 32, 37, 40 and 41 and opening the valves 20 and 22. Optionally, in all the embodiments illustrated and described in the figures, the valve 31 shown in FIG. 1c can be arranged, which in the opened state can hydrate the two working spaces 19a, 19b. raulisch connects or short circuits. The cooling can thus be carried out in "power-on-demand" mode If the clutch and gear control must be actuated, the required delivery rate may not be reached, but this is not critical since the operation is usually completed in a very short time 3 shows a dual-clutch concept with two gears, which can be advantageously used for electric drives A modular use of the double-lobe piston kit is possible, without the components being required for the gear shifters Thus, a traction-disconnection-free two-speed system for electric motor drives is possible. The clutch control is the same as described in Figure la and can be done with pressure sensors 41, 42 or position sensors 26, 29.
FIG. 4 shows the extension of a previously described system. The original system consists of the valve circuits in the partial transmission 1 and partial transmission 2 with the respective valves 24, 27, 32, 37, 40 and 41 for the actuation of the clutches 25, 28 and the gear plate 30, 33, 35, 38. The Hydrau - likaktuator 19, which is driven by the engine 1 via the gearbox 2 and has a Doppelhubkolben 19c is connected to its working spaces 19a, 19b via the two valves 20, 22 to the container or reservoir 6.
The extension of the gearbox is that the pressure modulator 19 ' , which is driven by the engine 1 ' via the gear 2 ' , for actuating the clutches Cl and C2 is usable. The working chamber 19a 'is for this purpose via the hydraulic lines HL19a' -25 and HL19a '-28 lung actuators with the couplings 25, 29 connected, wherein a respective switching valve 32a, 32b in the respective hydraulic lines HL19a' -25 and HL19a '-28 to their Barrier or opening is arranged. This allows a continuous micro-slip control of the respective clutch in the traction. In this case, the valves 32a, 32b which connect the pressure modulator 19a ' to the clutch actuators 25, 28 can be designed to be both normally open and normally closed. The functional properties of the circuit are explained in more detail below. Situation 1: Micro-slip control on clutch plate 25 with simultaneous gearshift in partial transmission 2.
In the situation described, the pressure modulator 19a ' assumes the continuous micro-slip control of the clutch actuator 25 by the pressure modulation valve 32b is opened to the clutch actuator and the pressure modulation valve 32b to the other clutch actuator 28 and the clutch valve 24 is closed. Depending on the clutch travel sensor 26, the pressure modulator 19a ' controls the micro-slip on the clutch 25. If a gear position in the partial transmission 2 is now required in parallel, this can be taken over by the hydraulic actuator 19. For example, if the shift from the neutral position to the right is required on the Gansteller 33, the valves 20, 22 and 27 are closed and the Ganstellereinlassventil 41 is opened and by a movement of the Doppelhubkolbens 19c to the right, the Doppelhubkolben the gear actuator 33 to the right in the fourth gear postponed. By a movement of the Doppelhubkolbens to the left is also possible to the gear actuator 33 to move to the left and thus insert the appropriate gear. The same applies, of course, to all other gear regulators in the partial transmission 2. Purely theoretically, there would also be the possibility of displacing volume in or out of the clutch actuator 28, throttle actuator 30 and 35 in parallel with the micro-slip control on clutch 25 via the double-stroke piston.
Situation 2: Deactivation of clutch a and simultaneous activation of clutch b
Here, the position of the clutch a is not controlled by an analogue controlled valve 24 or 30a, but via the pressure modulator 19a ' . As a result, the valves 24, 27, 30a, 30b are simplified towards pure digital switching valves.
Starting from the situation 1 described above, the valves 24 and 27 are now opened. The valves 30a, 30b, 32, 37, 40 and 41 and the pressure modulation valve 32b between the clutch actuator 28 and the pressure modulator 19a ' are closed unless this is already the case anyway. About the Doppelhubkolben 19c now the pressure build-up and the position is controlled to clutch plate 19c. The Doppelhubkolben 19c moves to the left. The right-hand chamber of the double-stroke piston thus simultaneously sucks over 24 Volume from the clutch plate 25 from. In this case, the pressure modulator 19a ' takes over the regulation of the pressure or the position of the clutch plate 25. The main volume flow is displaced in the situation by the double-stroke piston 19c. The pressure modulator 19a ' only corrects the volume for the clutch actuator 28 according to the requirements. After the partial transmission 2 is activated and the partial transmission 1 is deactivated, the coupling valves 24 and 27 are closed and the pressure modulator 19a ' separated by the pressure modulation valve 32a from the clutch actuator 25 and connected by the other pressure modulation valve 32b with the clutch actuator 28. Now the pressure modulator 19a ' assumes the micro-slip control on the clutch actuator 28.
The advantage of this circuit is that the pressure modulator 19a ' comes out with a much lower volume budget than the Doppelhubkolben 19c. The volume flow requirements to the pressure modulator 19a ' are well below the volume flow from the Doppelhubkolben 19c. Added to this is the fact that the system works completely without analogue valves and works purely with lower-cost, digitally switching valves.
In order to diagnose the system efficiencies, it is possible in this system to connect the two pressure chambers to each other, for example by opening the valves 32b and 27, and thereby to equalize the transmission efficiency of the pressure modulator 19, 19a ' and hydraulic actuator 19. On the one hand, this comparison can be very helpful in predicting failures and, on the other hand, in order to adjust the pressure settings more precisely and thus increase comfort. The mentioned diagnostic option exists for almost all systems which have two hydraulic actuators or pressure modulators and have the possibility to hydraulically connect the systems at short notice.
In emergency operation in case of failure of a motor 1, 1 'of the pressure modulator 19, 19 ' or the hydraulic actuator 19, there is the possibility that the respective other pressure supply takes over the coupling position and the gear position.
If the pressure modulator in emergency operation, the coupling position and gear position take over so must due to the low volume budget on the Outlet valves 30a and / or 30b in between volume nachgefördert in the pressure modulator 33. On the other hand, if the pressure modulator 33 fails, the function can be maintained via the hydraulic actuator 19, except for small interruptions in the micro-slip control. Basically, the extension of the original circuit is only necessary if short interruptions in the micro-slip control during gearshifts can not be accepted.
LIST OF REFERENCE NUMBERS
- 1 EC motor
- 2 gears
- 3 piston-cylinder unit
- 4 Angle of rotation sensor for motor commutation
- 5 Position sensor for clutch actuator in automated gearbox
- 6 reservoir
- 7 coupling unit 1
- 8 Pressure transmitter for clutch actuator in automated gearbox 9 2/2-way valve
- 10 gear actuator unit 1 (rotational movement)
- 10a, 10b piston-cylinder units of the gear selector 10th
- 11 gear actuator unit 2 (linear movement)
- 12 pistons of the gear mechanism 1 rotation (3 positions) 13 gear mechanism 2 translation (3 positions)
- 14 2/2-way valve
- 15 return spring of the gear mechanism 2
- 16 2/2-way valve
- 17 Rotary body of the gear regulator mechanism 1 (3 positions) 18 2/2-way valve
- 19 double-stroke pistons
- 19a Hydraulic chamber of the double-stroke piston for the hydraulic circuit HL2
- 19b Hydraulic chamber of double-stroke piston for hydraulic circuit HL1
- 19b Piston of hydraulic actuation
- 20 2/2-way inlet and outlet valve for HL2
- 21 Check valve for HL2
- 22 2/2-way inlet and outlet valve for HL1
- 23 Check valve for HL1
- 24 2/2-way inlet and outlet valve for clutch Cl
- 25 clutch plate Cl
- 25a Hydraulic piston of the clutch actuator Cl 26 Position sensor for clutch actuator Cl
- 27 2/2-way intake and exhaust valve for clutch C2
- 28 Clutch actuator C228a Hydraulic piston of the clutch actuator
- 29 Position sensor for clutch actuator C230 Gear actuator 1/3
- 30a hydraulic chamber 1 of the gear 1/3
- 30b hydraulic chamber 2 of the gear 1/3
- 30c piston with gearshift 1/3 gearshift fork
- 31 Position sensor of the gear selector 1/3
- 32 2/2-way inlet and outlet valve 1 for gear 1/3
- 33 shifter 2/4
- 33a Hydraulic chamber 1 of the shifter 2/4
- 33b Hydraulic chamber 2 of the shifter 2/4
- 33c Piston with gearshift 2/4 fork
- 34 Position sensor of the gear selector 2/4
- 35 gear shifter 5/7
- 35a Hydraulic chamber 1 of the gear selector 5/7
- 35b hydraulic chamber 2 of the gear selector 5/7
- 35c piston with gearshift fork 5/7
- 36 position sensor of the gear selector 5/7
- 37 2/2-way inlet and outlet valve 1 for gear selector 5/7
- 38 gear regulator 6 / R
- 38a Hydraulic chamber 1 of the gear actuator 6 / R
- 38b Hydraulic chamber 2 of the gear actuator 6 / R
- 38c piston with gearshift fork 6 / R
- 39 Position sensor of gear selector 6 / R
- 40 2/2-way inlet and outlet valve 1 for gear regulator 6 / R
- 41 2/2-way inlet and outlet valve 1 for gear selector 2/4
- 42 Pressure sensor for the clutch actuator 2
- 43 Pressure sensor for the clutch actuator 1
- 44 Pump of the cooling circuit HLP
- 45 Check valve of the cooling circuit HLP
- 46 Reservoir of the cooling circuit HLP
- 47 Motor for the pump of the cooling circuit HLP 48 Check valve of the DHK pump hydraulic chamber 1
- 49 Check valve of the DHK pump hydraulic chamber 2
- 50 DHK pump hydraulics
- 51 Reservoir of DHK pump hydraulics
- 52 2/2-way inlet and outlet valve 2 for gear selector 1/3
- 53 2/2-way inlet and outlet valve 2 for gear selector 2/4
- 54 2/2-way inlet and outlet valve 2 for gear selector 5/7
- 55 2/2-way inlet and outlet valve 2 for gear selector 6 / R HL Hydraulic line of an automated gearbox
- HL R Return and overrun of the hydraulics of an automated
- HL1 Hydraulic line 1 of a double-stroke piston
- HL2 Hydraulic line 2 of a double-stroke piston
- HLP hydraulic line of a cooling circuit with pump
- HLK1 Hydraulic line 1 of a cooling circuit with a double-stroke piston pump
- HLK2 Hydraulic line 2 of a cooling circuit with double-lift piston pump
- LK1 Lammellenkupplung 1
- LK2 Lammellenkupplung 2